Wednesday, May 6, 2020
Using the Gothic Genre in Frankenstein and A Modern Prometheus In the novel of Frankenstein - The Modern Prometheus, Mary Shelley chooses to use the gothic genre as it reflects many of her past experiences, and in some cases, flaws in her upbringing. The plot of Frankenstein reflects Mary Shelleys past experiences as many essential elements can be extracted from the storyline such as ; Mary Shelley herself was a motherless child, as her mother, feminist writer Mary Wollstonecraft died 9 days after Marys Birth from Puerperal fever. Written and Internet souces show that Marys beloved father William Godwin became absent, as he was unable to cope with raising children, little Mary as well as Mary Wollstonecrafts other daughter,Ã¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦I opened mine in terror Tyrannical Father Figure Mary Shellys novel introduces us to Dr. Victor Frankenstein, who attends a medical university and whilst there becomes obsessed with the creation of life. He creates a man out of the Raw Materials of dead men and animates the Creature. Horrified at the sight, Victor rejects the Creature when it awakens. Victor Frankenstein then leaves the creature to fend for itself. After Frankenstein abandoned his creation, it started to come to terms with and accepted that he would be rejected by those he had just met. The Monster then learns to read and to speak, and after reading his creators journal, he also learns that he is different from other men. The Monster then meets a family of peasants, whom he then tries to become involved with, but when he tries to help the family of peasants they (like everyone else) reject him because of his hideous face. After being rejected by the DeLacy family, who he cared for the creature is then filled with frustration, rage, and hatred towards his creator. Out of these emotions he committed murder, a crime considered by society to be of highest magnitude.Show MoreRelatedHow Is Gothic Illustrated in Frankenstein Up to Chapter 11807 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagesthe gothic illustrated in Frankenstein up to chapter 11? The gothic genre has many defining qualities and features, and as a gothic novel, Frankenstein (or the Modern Prometheus) exhibits some of these traits. However, due to the time period in which it was written by Mary Shelley there are also many features of Romanticism apparent in the novel, such as the emphasis on the beauty and restorative powers of nature in chapters 8 and 9. Therefore it is questionable which aspects of the Gothic genreRead MoreBook Review of Frankenstein by Marry Shelly1691 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesFULL TITLE: Frankenstein: or, The Modern Prometheus AUTHOR: Mary Wollstonecraft Shelley TYPE OF WORK: Novel GENRE: Gothic science fiction, Gothic Horror, Gothic Romance LANGUAGE: English TIME AND PLACE WRITTEN: Switzerland, 1816, and London, 1816Ã¢â¬â1817 SETTING (TIME): Eighteenth century SETTING (PLACE): Geneva, the Swiss Alps, Ingolstadt, England and Scotland, the northern ice DATE OF FIRST PUBLICATION: January 1, 1818 OTHER PUBLISHED EDITIONS: 1823 and 1831 PUBLISHER: Lackington,Read MoreMary ShelleyÃ ´s Frankenstein; Or, the Modern Prometheus, an Analysis of the Subtitle1219 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesVictor Frankenstein, the main protagonist, is being put on a level with Prometheus through the subtitle. An indication that Mary Shelley did indeed have the myth in mind as she wrote the novel, is not only her subtitle, but moreover the parallels between the Prometheus myth and Frankenstein, which are undeniable. The title itself gives a lot away of the story which follows. It links the modern world with the ancient Greek myth. Victor Frankenstein Ã¢â¬Å"stealsÃ¢â¬ the secret of life, just like Prometheus stoleRead MoreHow Does Mary Shelley Create Tension in Chapter 5 of Frankenstein?1280 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagesbiographer, best known for her Gothic novel Frankenstein. She had already written many stories and short novels, and even edited and promoted the works of her husband, Percy Bysshe Shelley . But Frankenstein; the Modern Prometheus w as her first work to achieve popularity and great success, despite the initial bad reviews, claiming the novel to be a tissue of horrible and disgusting absurdity. Frankenstein recalls the events of the fictional Victor Frankenstein and of his becoming an unholy creatorRead MoreEssay about Mary Shelleys Frankenstein1317 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesMary Shelleys Frankenstein Frankenstein was written in the 18th century by the romantic writer called Mary Shelley. The key events in this novel symbolize Mary Shelleys problems in real life, in one way or another. The novel starts with a man called Walton, who is venturing to the North Pole. On his way, he is shipwrecked and he comes across Victor Frankenstein, who is the protagonist in the book. Victor relives his story to Walton about what he did, which emphasizesRead MoreAnalysis Of Mary Shelley s Frankenstein 1028 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesFrankenstein thinks that everything is alright now, but Elizabeth has a premonition that the monster will return, and she warns her fiancÃ © that she fears some harm is going to befall him. At the same time, during the entire villageÃ¢â¬â¢s celebration, the father of the dead girl carries her lifeless body though the streets for all to see. The shock crowd stops its celebration, stunned and outraged over the death of Maria, and they demand justice from The Burgomaster (mayor) and local police. By nightfallRead MoreThe Castle Of Otranto : A Gothic Story1767 Words Ã |Ã 8 PagesThe first known piece of gothic literature was WalpoleÃ¢â¬â¢s Ã¢â¬ËÃ¢â¬â¢The Castle of Otranto: A gothic storyÃ¢â¬â¢Ã¢â¬â¢, which arrived in 1764(Britannica Pg.1). The audience was shocked by the bold movement of Walpole when he published his novel, which introduced ne w themes no one has ever seen before. The novelÃ¢â¬â¢s themes consist in murder, betrayal, and creepy places. This new and exciting piece of work slowly, without the knowledge of the author or everyone else, started the genre Gothic, which until these day is stillRead MoreTexts in Time Frankenstein and Bladerunner : )1400 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesModule A: Texts in Context Ã¢â¬Å"Mary ShelleyÃ¢â¬â¢s values are still relevant to society todayÃ¢â¬ . Discuss with reference to your knowledge of Blade Runner and Frankenstein. (1200 words) Frankenstein, Mary ShelleyÃ¢â¬â¢s cautionary tale of science vs. religion was first published in 1818, in an increasingly secular, but still patriarchal British society, amongst the aftermath of the French and Industrial revolutions and a burgeoning scientific research scene. Upon the second release in 1831, the novel was greetedRead More Chapter 5 of Mary Shelleys Frankenstein Essay2016 Words Ã |Ã 9 PagesChapter 5 of Mary Shelleys Frankenstein Within this essay I intend to discuss how Frankenstein and his creature change and how subconsciously they love each other. Chapter 5 will be used to show different themes as well as seeing how Frankenstein acts around his creation. Also the way Frankenstein has played God will be seen in this chapter. I will start this essay by looking at chapter 5. Shelley shows, in chapter 5, Frankenstein and the creatureÃ¢â¬â¢s reaction to the Ã¢â¬ËcreationÃ¢â¬â¢. ShelleyRead MoreEssay on The Gothic Genre and What it Entails6177 Words Ã |Ã 25 Pages 1800. Gothic literature has been an area of critical contention since Horace Walpoles seminal Gothic novel, The Castle of Otranto, was published in 1764. Although vilified by much of the contemporary press the Gothic had its champions, many of whom were also its practitioners including Walpole, the subsequent generations Anne Radcliffe and the Marquis de Sade who had his own brand of highly sexualized Gothic. Despite these voices, Gothic was still a marginalised
Tuesday, May 5, 2020
Question: Discuss about the Global Imbalances and Povertyfor Challenges for the World Economy. Answer: Background The reflective study analyses the perspective of the writer regarding the issue of global imbalances and poverty raised by International monetary fund. This paper analyses a remarks made by IMF director Rodrigo de Rato y Figaredo (Imf.org 2015). As per the goal of the United Nations, poverty is the important global issue still in twenty first century. This paper focuses on the challenges, transition in thinking, process against poverty are discussed. DIEP strategy is used to analyses and evaluate the issues related to global poverty considering different aspects of economy such as both micro and macro economic factors. Description As I have studied in the IMF paper that global imbalances in present context refers to the current account deficit, substantial gap in growth performance, slowdown in global growth rate, increasing level of debt, issues of structural reform in European economy. On the other hand, poverty is associated with the aspects such as child mortality, access to safe drinking water, enrolment in primary education (World Economic Forum 2016). The problem in my view is that policies of developed and developing countries are not the same due to differences in economic and political stricture. Therefore, attaining millennium development goal set by UN is at different rate and different ways in various global economies in order to reduce social and economic inequalities. Global imbalances have relation with global aggregate demand and supply as economies are integrated financially and with businesses. Global financial crisis had the root in the sub prime mortgage rate market in US, however, it spilt over across major developed ad developed economies of the world due to technological advancement in the financial sector and inter linkage among economies. Consequently the effect of financial crisis affected the banking system, credit opportunity, growth rate of the economy, investment and unemployment and further standard of living of people of different economies. As highlighted by World Bank, countries such as US has current account deficit, on the other hand, oil exporting countries such as Russia, Saudi Arabia, Japan, China have current account surplus (Imf.org 2015). Current account deficit creates external indebtedness and current value fluctuation. Current account deficit or surplus has impact on domestic savings and investment and in turn domest ic demand. Changes in economic structure due to changes in rate of investment ahs impact of welfare of regional economy and poverty. Interpretation While reviewing the issues of poverty I studied that a article of World economic Forum has highlighted that some analysts think that poverty is inevitable for economic advancement since one sector expand by sacrificing growth of other sector of the economy (weforum.org 2016). Poverty is not only the hunger or homelessness, but is the state of life based on income level and access of basic amenities. According to the World Bank report 2013, I have studied that 10.7% of the world population live on less than $1.90 per day (Worldbank.org 2017). Features of global poverty is still challenging as people living in remote areas still have no access of clean drinking water, healthcare facility, electricity, safe water and other critical services. I feel that frequent economic and financial shock, food insecurity, climate change are global issues that are detrimental for removing poverty. As stated by Altmann et al. (2013), poverty is a state when people lack financial and other necessary resources. In order to avail financial resources, the financial market needs reform to facilitate access of credit to the vulnerable section of people. It has been seen that regional income disparities in global economy is the cause of presence of poverty. Evaluation Global imbalances create several causes that restrict the removal of poverty. As studied in the development economics, poverty should reduce with the economic growth as per capita income is likely to rise. However, it has been seen that due to having disparities in the regional economies, national wealth are not distributed equally among all the communities of the society. Countries engaged in the civil war need to spend maximum portion of the government budget in defence. Therefore, disparities in geographical position are also a cause of differences in poverty rate. These countries thus can contribute little proportion for community development or poverty alleviation. War causes loss of human life, destruction of infrastructure, creates violence. Therefore, it is difficult for the country to invest in economic development of human capital formation (World Economic Forum 2016). Rosenstein Rodan suggested the big push theory for economic development that states that massive investment is required for the growth of the backward economies (Altmann et al. 2013). However, big push theory stressed on planned industrialisation in the economy to create job opportunity and growth of per capital income. Balanced growth of different sector may improve the economic status. When I understand from the analysis that country with current account deficit may have debt burden as expense is greater than income. Therefore, in order to reduce the deficit, government may cut domestic expense such as social benefits, social investment and may increases public debt. People living under abject poverty are major sufferer of this policy. Decrease in government spending has negative impact on the per capita income and aggregate demand of the economy. Consequently the economy can move into recession period to have severe impact on poverty and social inequality. I have studied that there is difference in the measurement process of poverty, incidence of poverty, formulation of monetary index, purchasing power comparison. Therefore, true picture of poverty is not always reflected. The Gini coefficient reflects the inequality in different nations. Plan As suggested in the UN development report highlighted by The Guardian, international trade can be a key factor to fight against regional disparities and poverty (McVeigh 2013). National and international aid and development projects to invest in school, health clinics, housing, social infrastructure and improve access of drinking water can be solution for reducing the extent of global poverty. The Multidimensional poverty index includes nutrition, child mortality, mean years of schooling, enrolment in primary schooling, availability of cooking fuel, water and sanitation facility, electricity, assets and covered floor. Countries such as Ghana, Tanzania, Cambodia, and Bolivia, where people still live under abject poverty need greater assistance from developed countries with higher growth rate. Capital can be remitted to those countries via trade to increases capital inflows, which can be invested in structural adjustment. Therefore, in my view, despite having global imbalances, greater integration and improved bilateral trade relations among developed and emerging nations can resolve the problem of global poverty. Positive effect of global poverty reduction may bring balance in global economy. References Altmann, M., Eisenreich, S., Lehner, D., Moser, S., Neidl, T., Rscher, V. and Vogeler, T., 2013. Global inequality and poverty in perspectives of geography.Multicultural Education Technology Journal,7(2/3), pp.127-150. Imf.org. 2015. Global Imbalances and Poverty - Challenges for the World Economy, Remarks by Rodrigo de Rato y Figaredo, Managing Director of the IMF. Available at: https://www.imf.org/en/News/Articles/2015/09/28/04/53/sp062005 [Accessed 15 Apr. 2017]. McVeigh, T. 2013. World poverty is shrinking rapidly, new index reveals. [online] the Guardian. Available at: https://www.theguardian.com/society/2013/mar/17/aid-trade-reduce-acute-poverty [Accessed 15 Apr. 2017]. World Economic Forum. 2016. Poverty: the past, present and future. Available at: https://www.weforum.org/agenda/2016/01/poverty-the-past-present-and-future/ [Accessed 15 Apr. 2017]. Worldbank.org. 2017. Poverty Overview. Available at: https://www.worldbank.org/en/topic/poverty/overview [Accessed 15 Apr. 2017].
Saturday, April 18, 2020
What is the role of institutions according to North How far does this theory go towards explaining the contours of world development in the pre-modern growth era Essay Example
What is the role of institutions according to North? How far does this theory go towards explaining the contours of world development in the pre-modern growth era? Essay What is the role of institutions according to North? How far does this theory go towards explaining the contours of world development in the pre-modern growth era? By Justifiedcause What is the role of institutions according to North? How far does this theory go towards explaining the contours of world development in the pre-modern growth era? Maddison (2006) stated that he would characterise the whole period 1000-1820 as protocapitalist. He believes the transition from pre-modern to modern economic growth took place at around 1820. This will set the stage for this discussion. Within that period, there were two groups of countries which were differentiated by their deviation in economic growth. They were the Group A nations, which included Western Europe, Western Offshootsl and Japan, while the rest of the world made up the Group B nations. The contours of world development in this era, largely shaped by Douglass Norths theory of institutions, can be categorise into two main subsets which are Gross Domestic Product (GDP) per capita and population demographics, for the purpose of this essay. North (1990) defines institutions as the rules of the game n a society or, more formally, are the humanly devised constraints that shape human action. Institutions exist in every economy, in the form of either formal or informal constraints, developed to define the choice sets, within which individuals and organisations make their decisions. Economic growth is heavily dependent on the productivity of an economy, which in turn is affected by the costs involved. We will write a custom essay sample on What is the role of institutions according to North? How far does this theory go towards explaining the contours of world development in the pre-modern growth era? specifically for you for only $16.38 $13.9/page Order now We will write a custom essay sample on What is the role of institutions according to North? How far does this theory go towards explaining the contours of world development in the pre-modern growth era? specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer We will write a custom essay sample on What is the role of institutions according to North? How far does this theory go towards explaining the contours of world development in the pre-modern growth era? specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer In the neoclassical world of complete information, the gains of trade are only negated by the costs of production, also known as the transformation costs. Norths theory of xchange takes into account the transaction costs, which are the costs of exchange that will also reduce the benefits of trade. Institutions affect these costs which determine the profitability and feasibility of economic activities. The role of the theory of institution is to deal with the issue of cooperation. In the real world of incomplete information and uncertainty, institutions are devised to create conducive conditions, where there are incentives and disincentives, to facilitate cooperative behaviour. In order to maximise private benefit, individuals and organisations will seek to cooperate. As a result, the behaviour of the community will become predictable and certain, since the behaviour of the community is the sum of the behaviour of parties within it. In other words, institutions establish a stable structure for economic, political and social interactions. With increased certainty, and therefore, lower costs of exchange, gains of trade can be reaped at a higher margin which would foster economic growth. The diagram below shows the dead-weight loss, represented by Area ABC, in a situation where there is a price increase in real terms, due to the risks involved, and decrease in quantity traded because of the ncertainty on the arrival of the goods. This highlights the importance of efficient institutions in reducing the costs of exchange. Prlvate, Instead 0T soclal, DeneTlts are oTten tne Tocus wnen aevlslng sucn rules, formal institutions in particular. Coupled with the fact that the relative bargaining power of different parties is a major determinant of the structure of the rules, it explains the persistence of inefficient institutions, a distinctive characteristic of Group B nations. It is precisely the form of institutional framework that determines the path of development a particular economy will take, either towards growth, ecline or stagnation which eventually shaped the contours of world development. Maddison (2006) noted that Group A nations had their average per capita income grew nearly four times as fast as the average for the rest of the world. Nations Annual Average Compound Growth Rate Average Group A 0. 13 Average Group B 0. 03 World 0. 05 Table : Rate of Growth of GDP Per Capita, 1000-1820 A. D. Different forms of institutions developed in areas like trade, scientific learning and social behaviour resulted in the divergence of the rate of growth of GDP per capita. During the 1200s, he Venetian Republic experienced sharp economic growth through institutional frameworks which promoted merchant capitalism and fostered entrepreneurism. Legal and political institutions were devised to protect property rights. In addition, the development of accountancy assisted in enforcing contracts and financial institutions gave access to credit and insurance. These greatly reduced the uncertainty of transactions and incentivise productive-enhancing activities like large scale international trade, which led to increased income per capita and economic growth. Contrastingly, in Morocco, the tribal chiefs found it profitable to protect merchant caravans but they lack the military might and political structure to devise and enforce property rights. The lack of development of informal rules into permanent institutional framework to cater for a larger market forestalled the expansion of any form of credible trade and this halted any increase in GDP per capita and economic growth. Institutions of intellectual tolerance played a significant role in Western Europe in setting a foundation for the educational system which was alrectea Dy sclentlTlc learning. By 1 500, tnere were approxlmately seventy acaaemles and universities of secular learning. The productivity of these learning centres and their willingness to accept new ideas were amplified after Johannes Gutenberg first developed printing for Europe in 1455. Techniques in book production were then revolutionised and, by 1483, productivity had increased by two hundred folds. In addition, European publishing was competitive and there was a presence of international trade in books which led to easy access to new ideas to a larger proportion of the population. These factors significantly incentivise the Europeans owards literacy and education, cultivating creativity and innovation. Although printing was available five centuries earlier in China than in Europe, the access to new information for the Chinese population was nothing close to that of the Europeans. China was a centralised state and its bureaucracy was able to exercise thought control by means of censorship and restriction of books available to the general population. This difference in intellectual institutions had significant implications, particularly on knowledge diffusion, which steered the Western Europeans towards scientific empirical research and experiment, making possible echnological process and human capital development through education; they in turn increased income per capita and economic growth. Social behaviour was also shaped by the highly contrasting political and religious institutional framework put in place in different regions of the world in the pre-modern growth era. In Europe, Christianity was adopted as a state religion as early as 380 AD. This resulted in contrasting characteristic of marriages, kinship and inheritance, especially that of the Islamic World. The Church broke down past links to tribes and clans and encouraged individualism and wealth accumulation. This promoted entrepreneurism which became founding steps towards more productive activities and exchange, increasing the standard of living in the long-run. On the other hand, Kuran (1996, 2003) suggested that the ethical and charitable requirements in Islamic law bind potentially productive resources into unproductive social-service organisations. In this case where redistributive, rather than productive, behaviour was incentivise, the economy stunted. Such behaviour would allocate labour resources inefficiently and increase the price of labour in productive sectors, which eventually led to an increase n transformation costs that would negate the gains of trade. This had adverse effect on per capita income and economic growth. Population demographics are another contour of world development. During the pre-modern growth era, the difference in life expectancy stood out between the Group A and B nations. Maddison (2001) also pointed out that deviation in life expectancy, as depicted in the following table. Nations Average Life Expectation (years at birth; average for both sexes) 1000 A. D. 1820 A. D. 24 Average Group 26 Table 2: Average Life Expectation, 1000-1820 A. D. Education institutions which facilitate technological advancement in Netherlands, for example, introduced inventions like water and canal management for agriculture. Additionally, electrical power generation was made possible by windmills which intensify productivity in the sector. The improvements, albeit slow, in agriculture increased food availability and led to a decrease in hunger crises, which were one of the key factors of high mortality before this era. This increase in human welfare, which in turn helped to lower the mortality rate, contributed to the climb in average life expectation in the Group A nations by 12 years. However, the same cannot be said for the Group B nations. The Europeans implemented extractive institutions in their colonies in Latin America while Africans were forced into slavery. In Asia, Indias state did little to educate its people to boost the agriculture sector, epitomised by the lack of use of their sacred cows dung as manure. Coupled with its social institutions like the caste system, there was little incentive and ability to produce food to curb shortages. Group B nations experienced little improvements in human welfare, which provides an explanation for the stagnation in life expectancy. Cameron and Neal (2003) said that The interrelationship of population, resources, and technology in the economy is conditioned by social interactions, including values and attitudes. While we cannot undermine the roles that the other three factors play in shaping the contours of world development, it is evident, from the examples given throughout the essay, that it is the underlying institutions applied that determined their growth, utilisation, and eventually, impact on the societies. Cameron and Neal (2003) summed up the importance of institutions by, coming into ag reement with North, uggesting that institutional change is perhaps the most dynamic source of change in the whole economy. The sum of the impacts coming from population growth, resources management and technological advancement, which are heavily influenced by the nations institutional structure, determined the contours of world development in the pre-modern growth era. (1484 words) ReTerences Cameron, R. , Neal, L. (2003). A Concise Economic History Of The World: From Paleolithic Times To The Present. New York: Oxford University Press. Carden, A. (2007). Christian Ethics, Formal Instiutions, and Economic Growth. American Review of Political Economy, 34-53. Harreld, D. J. (2010, February 4). The Dutch Economy in the Golden Age (16th-17th Centuries). Retrieved January 5, 2012, from EH. Net Encyclopedia: http://eh. net/encyclopedia/article/Harreld. Dutch Hodgso, G. M. (2006). What are Institutions? Jornal of Economic Issues, Vol. 40, No. 1. Kuran, T. (1996). The Discontents of Islamic Economic Morality. Economic Review Papers and Proceedings 86(2), 438-442. Kuran, T. (2003). Why the Middle East is Economically Underdeveloped: Historical Mechanisms of Institutional Stagnation. Working Paper: Mercatus Center and University of Southern California. Maddison, A. 2005). Growth Interaction in the World Economy: The Roots of Modernity. Washington, D. C. : The American Enterprise Institute Press. Maddison, A. (2006). The Contours of World Development. In A. Maddison, The World Economy: Volume 1: A Millennial Perspective Volume 2: Historical Statistics (pp. 29-50). Paris: Development Centre Studies, Organisation for Economic Co-operaton and Development (OECD). North, D. C. (1990). Institutions, Institutional Change and Economic Performance. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. North, D. C. (1991). Institutions. The Journal of Economic Perspectives, Vol. 5, NO. 1. ,97-112.
Saturday, March 14, 2020
Dreams essays We all have dreams. They are our hopes and aspirations. We all dreams of something, whether it be growing up to be rich and famous, marrying that one person of our dreams, or anything else we wish to accomplish. Dreams are the pleasant images that pass through our mind during slumber. The bottom line is we all have dreams and one day we hope to accomplish them For the most part people believe the cliche that dreams do come true. Obviously everyone wants their dreams to come true, because we have this impression that dreams are supposed to be these wonderful and magical visions. When we have a bad dream, we give it a totally different name, we call it a nightmare. When we have a good dream, we do not have a separate name for that. So this gives dreams a positive connotation. Most people are fine with this, and do not think anything of it. The etymology of the word actually means something quite different. The word dream originates from a German word, which actually means to deceive or delude. It also has to do with ghost or apparition. Somewhere along the way the word changed from something that had negative connotation to a more peaceful and happy word. I do not believe that the phrase dream should keep its positive association with out having some negative side. What I find very strange is, the meaning of the German word that dream derives from is not found in any English dictionary today. It can only be found when searching for the etymology of the word. So dream used to have a semi-negative connotation and now it is very positive. I believe that the meaning of the word dream should not have been changed. It makes sense, dreams are something that are delusions. In reality most dreams do not come true. Yet we are raised to believe if you want it bad enough it will come. In my opinion that is bullshit. Ive had many realistic dreams, and worked hard at them, but most of the time nothing com ...
Wednesday, February 26, 2020
Sales and marketing management - Essay Example Gathering of information using primary method is the best way because there is interaction with a client (Baker 2008). Primary methods to be used can be observation, networking, interviewing and focus groups. This paper will put forward an in-depth assessment of cause related marketing, its benefits to involved partners and application of various theories Cause Related Marketing Does Cause Related Marketing aim to Generate Resources for Specific Concerns? Starbucks and Nike are one of the few companies that engage in cause related marketing. Companies partner with non-profit making organizations with various purposes. Apart from marketing their products, they raise awareness and offer support and some give donations to hunger stricken people. Other purposes include enhancing a company reputation, to gain financially and to enhance a customer loyalty. This proves that Cause Related Marketing has an aim of generating resources for specific needs (Dibb 2000). Yoplait Yogurt is another g ood company that did Cause Related Marketing in 1997. This company formed a partnership with Susan Komen Breast Cancer Foundation to promote their yogurt and at the same benefit the cancer foundation. The partnership had been successful because the Cancer Foundation used to receive 10 cents for a cup of yoghurt bought. The brand image of Yoplait was promoted and this led to increment of their sales. It also created a public awareness concerning breast cancer which is a killer disease. Differences between Cause Related Marketing and Social Marketing Cause related marketing has its main focus on benefiting partners involved. It is used to generate resources, create awareness of a situation and improve the image of a company. There is marketing involved. Products of a company are marketed while trying to raise awareness of a social situation. The organization involved get financial help while companies increase their product sales. Social marketing is taking advantage of social media t ools to do marketing (Keller 2008). It enables customers to be informed, make better decisions and view products in a wider perspective. Through this way, a company is able to increase its sales and revenue. It is an old strategy of marketing. Benefits of CRM for Both Parties The primary goal for companies that engage in cause related marketing is to increase their revenue and promote their image. This type of marketing enhances brand building. Customers prefer companies or brands that associate themselves with donations. Companies that engage in charitable activities are preferred more than those that do not. Organizations benefit when they are funded by companies. Non-profit making organizations have more sources of funding when they partner with companies that engage in Cause Related Marketing. Companies known to donate to non-profit making organizations include Coca Cola and McDonalds among others (Kotler 2009). Cause-related Marketing generates goodwill for a company and create s organization awareness. Conclusion Cause-related marketing benefits all the parties involved. There is increase of sales because customers like to be associated with companies that engage in charitable activities. Both the images of businesses and organization are enhanced. There is awareness of a social phenomenon and organizations benefit financially. Brand Development Introduction Branding is always in a form of a logo which is designed to convey a certain message
Monday, February 10, 2020
WE 3 CRJ 545 rESPONSE - Essay Example Listing of the bodies involved in the crime scene investigations could also be imperative (Gardner, 2011). Owing to the complexity and disparity in various crimes, it is critical for the CSI teams and other forensic practitioners to have a well-constructed approach to the reconstruction of a Crime Scene, in order to ascertain the mode in which the exact crime occurred (Gardner, 2011). The writer portrays vast awareness of the processes that occur in the crime scene reconstruction. The systematic approach of crime scene reconstruction from the assessment to analysis of collected evidence seems appealing (Gardner, 2011). However, the writer ought to include the protocol observed in the reconstruction of various crime scenes. The ethics observed in crime scene reconstruction is also significant (Gardner, 2011). As indicated, crime scene documentation is critical in the reconstruction of the scene, or for the utilization as evidence in the courtrooms. The writer has a clear record of the significance of crime scene documentation, thereby highlighting the relevant information to be documented, while leaving insignificant information (Gardner, 2011). The tools and modes of documentation are also appealing. However, the writer is not exhaustive on the technological modes of the sceneÃ¢â¬â¢s data collection and documentation. Besides, it will also be crucial to highlight the protocols and ethics involved in crime scene documentation (Gardner,
Thursday, January 30, 2020
Factors Affecting Female Achievement Essay The definition of education guiding mainstream schools today is that education is the delivery of knowledge, skills, and information from teachers to students. While the above metaphorÃ¢â¬âeducation as a delivery systemÃ¢â¬âsounds reasonable, it misses what is most important about education. This mistaken idea of what true education is and how it can be achieved is the root problem in mainstream education today. This conception of education contributes to harming students and teachers by driving policy makers to insist on accounting for the units of information that students demonstrate knowledge of on tests. The perceived need for mass scale standardized outcomes leads to a kind of instructional bookkeeping that drives administrators to control teachers behavior, which in turn is directed to controlling students behavior in ways that increases symptoms of anxiety, depression, and other forms of diminished psychological well-being. Student outcomes as measured by tests bear little relationship to true education, and so the instructional bookkeeping scheme is a failure even before the harm it causes is taken into consideration. [[SIDEBAR: Check out my video about Waiting For Superman to see how the delivery metaphor was presented in that movie as an utterly obvious truth for mainstream audiences, much to my chagrin.
Wednesday, January 22, 2020
Ã¢â¬Å"A Worn PathÃ¢â¬ tells of an elderly and frail black woman and of the hardships that she must overcome. Upon reading the story, you realize that there is more to the story than meets the eye. She faces many roadblocks along her way. Phoenix faces many dangerous obstacles along her way, for a person of her age. She faces racism from some of characters she meets along the way. Phoenix faces inferior treatment, as though she is nothing more than some insect to squash. This story is about not only her Ã¢â¬ËjourneyÃ¢â¬â¢ to Natchez, but also about her journey through society and the struggle to overcome the dangers, being treated inferior, and the racism. ItÃ¢â¬â¢s December when Phoenix starts on her journey to Natchez and it is a journey she has taken many times before. This journey is no journey an elderly and weaken person should have to make by themselves, yet Phoenix does. She does not allow her age or her condition to keep her from it. Deep through the pines, the path takes her, and her first task would be to make it over a hill that seems to take all her energy and strength. Ã¢â¬Å"Seems like there is chains around my feet, time I get this farÃ¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ (Welty 5), here the reader can tell Phoenix does not have the strength that she really needs to make it up the hill. Yet somewhere she finds the will to keep pushing on and moving forward. This same type of spirit that allows Phoenix to keep pushing forward in society, and not to back down. Showing the younger generation that you have to fight your way through to a brighter day. It is later down the path that Phoenix comes to a creek and the only way to get across, is by walking on a log. Phoenix walks across this log with her eyes close. Once across she opens her eyes and says, Ã¢â¬Å"I wasnÃ¢â¬â¢t as old as I ... ...f questions and she answers all of them respectfully and honestly. Phoenix cleverly distracts the man, with the two dogs that are fighting and he goes off to scare the big black one away by shooting at it. It is when he comes back and points his gun at her, that Phoenix shows no fear if it. When she is asked if she is afraid of it, her reply is, Ã¢â¬Å"No sir, I seen plenty go off closer by, in my day, and for less than what I doneÃ¢â¬ (Welty 58). Her unusual courage shows just how far racism stretches. Normally a human being would show fear when staring a gun down, but with years of white people making slaves out of them; black people had learn to face persecution head on. Therefore, Phoenix faced her trial head on, and the white hunter left with a little more respect for her than before. Which in the society she lived in respect was a gift and to be cherished.
Tuesday, January 14, 2020
In the book Ã¢â¬Ëthe mystery of capitalism: Why Capitalism Triumphs in the West and Fails Everywhere ElseÃ¢â¬ Hernando De Soto, the Peruvian economist presents a detailed study of several countries and their failure to benefit from capitalism. It is important to mention here that while most economists understand that land is as important a factor of production as liquid capital still many have failed to understand the significance of property and property rights when it comes to the success of a particular economic system. The core purpose of writing this book is to answer the question that the author has posed in the very first chapter: Ã¢â¬Å"But if people in countries making the transition to capitalism are not pitiful beggars, are not helplessly trapped in obsolete ways, and are not the uncritical prisoners of dysfunctional cultures, what is it that prevents capitalism from delivering to them the same wealth it has delivered to the West? Why does capitalism thrive only in the West, as if enclosed in a bell jar?Ã¢â¬ While we are aware of the fact that land itself is important, we rarely ever delve deeper into this subject to find out how property and its legal rights can play a vital role in the success or failure of an economic system. This is where Hernando De Soto stepped in and has offered a detailed study of property and its legal title in various poor countries with reference to capitalism in those areas. The main purpose of this book is to illustrate the reasons why capitalism has failed in poor countries and why only the developed countries in the West have been able to benefit from this system but the book carefully ignores the reasons which other economists have mentioned often and only focuses on property and its role in the economic system. The author maintains that failure of this system in poor countries is a cause of concern not only for the developing countries but also for the West. Ã¢â¬Å"In the business community of the West, there is a growing concern that the failure of most of the rest of the world to implement capitalism will eventually drive the rich economies into recession. As millions of investors have painfully learned from the evaporation of their emerging market funds, globalization is a two-way street: If the Third World and former communist nations cannot escape the influence of the West, neither can the West disentangle itself from them. Adverse reactions to capitalism have also been growing stronger within rich countries themselves.Ã¢â¬ It is clear from his book that the most important reason why capitalism has failed to influence the poor countries is because of the difficulties involved in getting legal title to property that poor sections of the society hold. The western countries fail to understand that capitalism is not exactly about growth of Internet or globalization, it is essentially concerned with movement of capital. It is important to mention here that DE SOTO believes that property is not important only because it provides security and a place to dwell in, but its significance lies in he fact that it is an asset, the problem with poor countries is that while a large section of the society possesses this asset, many of them do not have legal rights to those pieces of land. As a result of which they cannot use this land for any other purpose except accommodation. Ã¢â¬Å"Most of the poor already possess the assets they need to make a success of capitalism. But they hold these resources in defective forms. Ã¢â¬ ¦ They lack the process to represent their property and create capital. They have houses, but not titles. It is the representation of assets in legal property documents that gives them the power to create surplus value.Ã¢â¬ We need to understand that property is a fixed asset and it can be used for several other purposes including collateral. But since the poor sections of the society do not have legal title to the piece of land they hold, they cannot use it as a source of capital, which is the reason why only western countries have, been able to benefit from capitalist system of economy. He is of the view that every person in small developing countries possess immense talent to mint money and engage in business activities successfully but the problem is that since they are not capable of becoming legal owners of the property that they otherwise own unofficially, their access to finances is also limited. The author has also carefully studied the views and theories of various economists from Adam Smith to Karl Marx in order to make the readers understand why capital plays an essential role in capitalist system of economy and why property is the backbone of this system. The author has also focused on the failure of communism and then builds a strong case in connection with failure of capitalism in developing countries. Ã¢â¬Å"Marx said that you needed to go beyond physics to touch Ã¢â¬Å"the hen that lays the golden eggsÃ¢â¬ ; Adam Smith felt you had to create Ã¢â¬Å"a sort of waggon-way through the airÃ¢â¬ to reach that same hen. But no one has told us where the hen hides.Ã¢â¬ There is a new concept of Ã¢â¬Ëdead capitalÃ¢â¬â¢ presented in this book. Hernando De Soto is of the view that the assets which cannot be used in place of capital becomes dead capital as it has no other value than the one purpose for which it was originally owned. He presents the example of some poor cities including Cairo, Lima, Manila, Mexico City and Porto Prince and shows how these cities are suffering from abundant dead capital. For example in Cairo, the city possesses dead capital worth $ 241.4 billion, which is six times more than the total value of all saving deposits in Egyptian banks. The country itself is thus suffering from its dead assets because they cannot be used as capital and therefore the economic system has failed to reap benefits of capitalism. This brings us to another important question. Why donÃ¢â¬â¢t people who unofficially own a piece of land try to gain legal rights to their property? It is a very important question because the answer to it also highlights the dismal performance of various economic and administrative units of developing countries. There are so many difficulties involved in legalizing a piece of property and usually the process takes so long that most poor people simply do not bother to get legal rights. For example in Egypt it takes some 31 agencies and 5-14 years to legally own a piece of land and close to 77 steps are involved in this process. De Soto has taken a serious look at the situation that has consistently suppressed Third World countries. He argues that people in these countries are constantly being oppressed because they lack knowledge about legal rights to property and their governments fail to offer adequate help. Karl Marx first discussed the function of property or its role in the development of nations in detail and De Soto recognizes his contribution. He argues that when property is legally recognized, it is only then that poor people can use it in the way that would be productive and lucrative. Without legal rights to a piece of property, its occupation comes to no production use. De Soto maintains that property rights do not only facilitate legal and productive use of land, they also offer host of other benefits such as creating a sense of responsibility, more commitment from citizens, more politically aware people etc. The most important lesson of the book is the topic of extra-legality. This refers to the sector of illegal property that has created extra-judicial ways to gain and use property. It was removed from West in the 19th century but still plagues third world countries. De Soto writes: Ã¢â¬Å"Ã¢â¬ ¦ The reason capitalism has triumphed in the West and sputtered in the rest of the world is because most of the assets in Western nations have been integrated into one formal representational system.Ã¢â¬ (p. 52) explaining the way West got rid of extra-legality, De Soto further adds that, Ã¢â¬Å"This integration did not happen casually. Over decades in the nineteenth century, politicians, legislators, and judges pulled together the scattered facts and rules that govern property throughout cities, villages, buildings, and farms and integrated them into one system. This Ã¢â¬Å"pulling togetherÃ¢â¬ of property representations, a revolutionary moment in the history of developed nations, deposited all the information and rules governing the accumulated wealth of their citizens into one knowledge base. Before that moment, information about assets was far less accessible. Ã¢â¬ ¦For knowledge to be functional, advanced nations have to integrate into one comprehensive system all their loose and isolated data about property. Developing and former communist nations have not done thisÃ¢â¬ ¦.It was this Ã¢â¬Å"revolutionaryÃ¢â¬ development in the 19th century that sparked the Industrial Revolution the economic progress that is the hallmark of Western society.Ã¢â¬ (p. 52) De Soto informs his readers that in the West during the 19th century, the private property laws were introduced to tackle the problem of extra-legality. This led to a capitalist revolution in these parts of the world and led to enormous economic growth. We need to understand that De Soto has found a close connection between integration of systems and codified laws. He argues: It may surprise the Western reader that most of the world's nations have yet to integrate extralegal property agreements into one formal legal system. For Westerners, there supposedly is only one law Ã¢â¬â the official one. Yet the West's reliance on integrated property systems is a phenomenon of at most the last two hundred years. In most Western countries, integrated property systems appeared only about one hundred years ago; Japan's integration happened little more than fifty years ago. As we shall see in detail later, diverse informal property arrangements were once the norm in every nation. Legal pluralism was the standard in continental Europe until Roman law was rediscovered in the fourteenth century and governments assembled all currents of law into one coordinated system. (p. 53) But is it correct to say that in the absence of centrally controlled legal system, we cannot have an integrated property system? Well I guess that is wrong to assume because the two can exist independently of each other. This is because these two deal with completely different things. One deals with access of information and the other is concerned with protection of property. From where I am looking at the situation, I feel that these two could exist without each other. But the way De Soto connects them makes sense too. He believes that without protection of property, we cannot have accurate information about ownership of property and vice versa. De Soto is of the view that common law is a problem in the third world countries because it was the same kind of law that caused property problems in the West too. He claims that common law could not Ã¢â¬Å"provide guidance for how courts should handle cases involving people who had bought or inherited land of dubious title,Ã¢â¬ and that, Ã¢â¬Å"more importantly, the English common law of property was often ill suited to deal with the problems that confronted the colonists.Ã¢â¬ (p. 111) But this may not be entirely true. Customary law or common law has its own benefits. Its strength lies in its ability to raise solutions as problems arise. But De Soto sees it differently. The book definitely has its share of merits. Its one of the best books written so far on the subject of third world oppression because of property. I donÃ¢â¬â¢t think anyone really understood the significance of having legal property before the publication of this book. The author has chosen a different route for seeking a solution to the third world development problems. This solution may or may not work depending on its implementation but it sure offers a new way to study the problem. REFERENCE: 1)Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã The Mystery of Capital: Why Capitalism Triumphs in the West and Fails Everywhere Else (New York: Basic Books and London: Bantam Press/Random House, 2000) Ã Ã
Monday, January 6, 2020
Book Review On Emotional Survival For Law Enforcement A Guide for Officers and Their Families By: Kevin M. Gilmartin, Ph.D. Emotional Survival for Law Enforcement by Kevin M. Gilmartin, Ph.D. is a book that seeks to inform and instruct those seeking to be in law enforcement, law enforcement professionals and their families of the realities of a career in law enforcement- professionally and personally. And how to best prepare for emotional survival of Ã¢â¬Å"on-duty and off-dutyÃ¢â¬ life. It also compares and contrasts what happens to officers at the beginning of this journey and what typical happens to officers overtime; focusing mainly on what happens to officers that donÃ¢â¬â¢t know the techniques of emotional survival. Though itÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦To the point that I believe that it would keep anyone engaged no matter if the reader was part of the intended target audience. For audience the book does target, I believe it clearly demonstrates the internal and external assaults officers will experience both personally and organizationally. And how officers can train themselves to percei ve and act as a victim in everything they do and in every way they think. Or how they can emotionally survive these assaults by balancing their identity and by acquiring healthy outlets to be proactive and engaged in personal affairs. This is clearly demonstrated by various case study examples throughout the book. Examples of officers that fall directly in line with GilmartinÃ¢â¬â¢s Hypervigilant Biological Rollercoaster theory and how some of these studies show the result of an officers application of emotional survival. This is what makes the book so strong. GilmartinÃ¢â¬â¢s ability to give validity to his concepts by comparing and contrasting officer action and reaction of similar situations. Then applying his theory of those who fall victim to the Hypervigilant Biological Rollercoaster, have the victim mentality and the unbalanced identification with solely being a cop. To those officers that display emotional survival techniques. By doing this Gilmartin shows clear distinc tion; drastic outcomes of similar situations. Reinforcing the importance of acquiring emotional coping tools andShow MoreRelatedStudying Stress among Law Enforcement Officers2504 Words Ã |Ã 10 Pagesemployee of a law enforcement organization, be it a local, regional, or state police force; a federal law agency, or a more specific correctional facility or other law enforcement organization. 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